StrengtheningUnited States

‘Our strategy focuses on balancing value, volume, capital efficiency, balance sheet strength and strict pricing discipline for both variable and fixed annuities. Fixed annuity sales have slowed as a result of the current interest rate environment.’

Signature - Mike Wells

Mike Wells
President and Chief Executive Officer
Jackson National Life Insurance Company

The United States is the world’s largest retirement savings market. Each year, many of the 78 million ‘baby boomers’1 reach retirement age, which will trigger a shift from savings accumulation to retirement income generation for more than US$10 trillion of accumulated wealth over the next decade2.

During 2011, the US equity markets continued to be challenging for the financial services industry, with higher volatility returning during the second half of the year, along with a decline of interest rates to historically low levels. Despite a very volatile year, the S&P 500 index recovered from the large falls in the third quarter to finish flat for the year. Implied volatility ended the year higher than that at year end 2010. Overall, rates on 10-year treasuries reached new historical lows during the second half of 2011, finishing the year below 2 per cent, while AA corporate spreads widened from year end 2010 levels.

In such an environment, Jackson’s asset and liability management continues to incorporate equity and interest rate exposure on an aggregate basis in order to ensure that total economic risk is hedged effectively within our established policy limits. Jackson continues to adapt its hedging programme to market conditions in order to ensure continued strong risk management. Despite historically low interest rates, volatile equity markets and the fluctuations in equity volatility experienced in 2011, Jackson’s hedging programme continued to perform well, mitigating the impact of the macroeconomic challenges and supporting our robust capital position. Jackson’s approach to pricing and hedging has always been to adopt a conservative stance and we believe that this positions Jackson well to outperform its peers during periods of market dislocation. Policyholder behaviour in 2011 continued to trend in line with both our pricing and reserving expectations.

The uncertain environment continues to provide an advantage to companies with good financial strength ratings and a track record of financial discipline. Companies that were hardest hit by the market disruptions over the last few years still have to work to regain market share as customers and distributors seek product providers that offer consistency, stability and financial strength. Jackson continues to benefit significantly from this flight to quality and heightened risk aversion.

Thanks to our financial stability and innovative products, we continue to enhance our reputation as a high-quality and reliable business partner, with sales increasing as more advisers have recognised the benefits of working with Jackson. A significant part of Jackson’s growth continues to come from an increase in its distribution penetration with sales through distributors who either did not previously sell Jackson’s products or simply did not sell variable annuities. In the second half of 2011, Jackson entered into another wirehouse distribution agreement further extending Jackson’s ability to reach all major wirehouse firms in the US on attractive terms.

Our strategy focuses on balancing value, volume, capital efficiency, balance sheet strength and strict pricing discipline for both variable and fixed annuities. Fixed annuity sales have slowed as a result of the current interest rate environment.


  • 1 Source: US Census Bureau
  • 2 Source: McKinsey

‘Jackson's product diversity allows the company to quickly adapt to changing market conditions and sustain appropriate sales levels in all phases of the business cycle.’

Financial performance

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APE sales 1,275 1,164 10 1,121 14
NBP 815 761 7 734 11
NBP margin (% APE) 64% 65%   65%  
Total IFRS operating profit 694 833 (17) 803 (14)
Total EEV operating profit 1,431 1,458 (2) 1,406 2

Bar chart - New business profit: 2010 £761m - 2011 £815m +7%

Continue to drive positive net retail sales

In 2011, Jackson achieved record APE retail sales of £1,251 million, an increase of 7 per cent over 2010. With the addition of modest institutional sales in 2011, total APE sales were £1,275 million, an increase of 10 per cent. Retail annuity net flows continued to benefit from increased sales and low levels of surrender activity, with an increase of 6 per cent from £8.0 billion in 2010 to £8.5 billion in 2011. Jackson’s strategy continues to focus on balancing value, volume and capital consumption for its various annuity products. Jackson’s product diversity allows the company to quickly adapt to changing market conditions and sustain appropriate sales levels in all phases of the business cycle. During the second half of 2011, sales slowed relative to the first half run rate due to proactive changes we made to our product offerings and shifts in the competitive environment. During the third quarter, Jackson implemented various product initiatives to enhance product diversity and margins and further optimise the balance between growth, capital and profitability.

Innovate around our key variable annuity product

Jackson continues to innovate its product offerings, implementing various changes in 2011 to manage profitability, to comply with revised regulations and enhance risk management flexibility. Jackson continues to actively monitor its product offerings to ensure the company retains the appropriate pricing levels in current market conditions.

‘In 2011, for the sixth consecutive year, Jackson was rated as a 'World Class' service provider by Service Quality Measurement Group.’

Further enhance operational efficiency

We continue to invest in our back office staffing and systems to provide world class customer service in an efficient and cost effective manner. In 2011, for the sixth consecutive year, Jackson was rated as a ‘World Class’ service provider by Service Quality Measurement Group. Jackson was able to provide this level of service in 2011 while processing record retail sales, and decreasing its ratio of statutory general expenses to average assets (one measure of efficiency) to 42 basis points, compared to the 2010 level of 44 basis points.

2013 Financial objective

  • Deliver £200 million of net cash remittance to the Group

IFRS pre-tax operating profit was £694 million in 2011, down 17 per cent from £833 million in 2010. As previously indicated, this reduction was due to the expected accounting impact of accelerated deferred acquisition cost (DAC) amortisation of £232 million (2010: £11 million), which masked an underlying increase in earnings driven by higher fee income on separate account assets.

At 31 December 2011, Jackson had £37.8 billion in separate account assets, an increase of 21 per cent compared to £31.2 billion in 2010. The increase in separate account assets primarily reflects the impact of substantial positive net flows. This growth resulted in variable annuity separate account fee income of £680 million in 2011, up 34 per cent over the £506 million achieved in 2010.

Total spread income, including the expected return on shareholders’ assets, was £813 million in 2011, compared to £817 million in 2010. Excluding the expected return on shareholders’ assets, spread income was £730 million, an increase of £38 million over 2010. Spread income benefited by £113 million from swap transactions entered into to more closely match the overall asset and liability duration (2010: £108 million). This effect combined with the reduction in crediting rates has mitigated the downward pressures created by the lower interest rate environment.

Acquisition costs have increased in absolute terms compared to 2010 due to the growth in sales volumes. However, acquisition costs as a percentage of APE have decreased to 70 per cent for 2011, compared to 73 per cent for 2010.

The DAC amortisation charge increased in 2011 to £619 million (2010: £334 million). This comprises a core charge of £387 million (2010: £323 million) and an accelerated charge of £232 million (2010: £11 million). The higher core charge is in line with the increase in fee income and spread profits. The accelerated charge reflects the anticipated additional amortisation of £166 million relating to the reversal of the benefit received in 2008 from the mean reversion formula and a charge of £66 million caused by lower than assumed separate account returns.

Administration expenses increased to £412 million in 2011 compared to £344 million in 2010, with the increase due primarily to higher asset-based commissions paid on the larger 2011 separate account balance. These asset-based commissions paid upon policy anniversary dates are treated as an administration expense as opposed to a cost of acquisition and are offset by higher fees.

Jackson continues to actively manage its investment portfolio to mitigate investment risk. Jackson reported net realised gains on debt securities of £106 million in 2011 compared to £11 million in 2010. This comprises interest related realised gains during the period of £158 million (2010: £224 million), primarily due to sales of government and corporate debt, net recoveries on sales of previously impaired securities of £10 million (2010: losses of £89 million) and bond write-downs of £62 million (2010: £124 million). In addition to the net realised gains on debt securities described above, Jackson had write-downs of £28 million (2010: £12 million) on commercial mortgage loans. In 2011 and 2010, Jackson did not experience any defaults in its debt securities portfolio.

The net unrealised gain position has increased from £1,210 million at 31 December 2010 to £2,057 million at 31 December 2011 due primarily to the continued decline in the US Treasury rates. Gross unrealised losses decreased from £370 million at 31 December 2010 to £246 million at 31 December 2011.

Jackson delivered record APE retail sales of £1,251 million in 2011, representing a 7 per cent increase over 2010 (12 per cent at constant exchange rates). Jackson has achieved these sales levels, while maintaining its pricing discipline, as it continued to write new business at aggregate internal rates of return (IRR) in excess of 20 per cent.

In 2011, record variable annuity (VA) APE sales of £1,091 million were 15 per cent higher than in 2010, as Jackson continued to benefit from its customers’ and distributors’ flight to quality. Although we do not target volume or market share, these market conditions allowed Jackson’s ranking to remain at third in variable annuity sales in the US for 2011, while increasing its market share to 11.4 per cent from 10.7 per cent for the full year 20101. Jackson ranks first among VA providers for adviser loyalty. Jackson also earned the top ranking for satisfaction with external and internal wholesaler support among VA providers2.

Jackson’s strategy of proactively managing fixed annuity (FA) volumes resulted in APE sales of £47 million, 44 per cent lower than in 2010. Jackson ranked 14th in sales of traditional deferred fixed annuities through the third quarter of 2011, with a market share of 1.9 per cent, compared to eighth with a 3.4 per cent market share for the full year 20103.

Fixed index annuity (FIA) APE sales of £93 million in 2011 were down 15 per cent from 2010 as Jackson continued to focus its marketing efforts on higher margin VA products. Jackson ranked ninth in sales of fixed index annuities through the third quarter of 2011, with a market share of 4.6 per cent, down from sixth and a market share of 5.2 per cent in the full year 20104.

Jackson’s growth moderated during the latter part of the year, with full year total retail annuity net flows of £8.5 billion in 2011, an increase of 6 per cent compared to 2010. This modest increase was due to the impact of volatility in the S&P 500 experienced during the second half of the year, along with various product initiatives that were implemented during the third quarter. These initiatives were taken in order to optimise the balance between growth, capital and profitability. Retail annuity net flows continued to benefit from increased sales and continued low levels of surrender activity. Jackson remained the third largest seller of individual annuities in the United States through the third quarter of 2011, with a market share of 8.4 per cent, up from a market share of 8.0 per cent for the full year 20101.

EEV basis new business profit of £815 million was up 7 per cent on 2010, broadly in line with the 10 per cent increase in total APE sales. Total new business margin was 64 per cent, compared to 65 per cent achieved in 2010.

The variable annuity new business margin of 69 per cent in 2011 decreased from 72 per cent in 2010. The adverse effect on margin of the 142 bps decline in 10-year Treasury rates was largely mitigated by pricing actions taken over the past 15 months and a favourable shift in VA business mix. The fixed indexed annuity new business margin remained flat at 41 per cent in 2011. Lower assumed target spreads and future reinvestment yields have resulted in a decrease in the fixed annuity new business margin from 34 per cent to 29 per cent.

Total EEV basis operating profit for the long-term business in 2011 was £1,431 million, compared to £1,458 million in 2010. In-force profits were £81 million lower than 2010, partially offset by the £54 million increase in new business profit. The decline in in-force profits to £616 million (2010: £697 million) was driven largely by a lower contribution from the unwind of the discount on the opening embedded value, as a result of lower interest rates, and by lower positive operating experience variances than seen in 2010.

In 2011, Jackson invested £202 million of free surplus to write £1,275 million of new business APE (2010: £300 million and £1,164 million, respectively). The reduction in capital consumption year-on-year principally reflects the benefit of lower costs generated by economies of scale and favourable business mix in 2011. Jackson wrote a higher proportion of variable annuity business, which consumes lower levels of initial capital and has lower initial reserving requirements as a result of product changes effected at the end of 2010.

Jackson’s RBC level at the end of 2011 was 429 per cent, which compares to 483 per cent in 2010. Jackson continues to have in place a SSAP 865 permitted practice which has the effect of valuing the interest rate hedge programme at cost, thereby not recognising in the RBC ratio the significant mark to market gains on this programme that arose from the decline in interest rates during 2011. The RBC ratio would be 482 per cent (2010: 470 per cent) without the permitted practice. Jackson’s RBC ratio remains at an appropriate level despite net remittances of £322 million during 2011, a testament to both the strength of Jackson’s balance sheet and the effectiveness of the hedging programme.


  • 1 Source: Morningstar Annuity Research Center (MARC)
  • 2 Source: Cogent Research Advisor Brandscape™ 2011
  • 3 Source: LIMRA
  • 4 Source: AnnuitySpecs
  • 5 Statement of Statutory Principle No. 86 – Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging, Income Generation, and Replication (Synthetic Asset) Transactions

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